In essence, there are two types of braking systems: Hydraulic and electric. Hydraulic brakes are the typical system that everyone is used to where when you push the brake pedal, pressure is sent to the braking system, and hydraulic pressure causes the brakes to work. Electric brakes use a different system that uses an electrical charge that sends a signal to the brake controller and causes the brakes to stop. Electrical brakes are used and allowed for trailers as they work well in conjunction with a vehicle that is towing a trailer through a connection with the towing vehicle. Electrical breaks are allowed to be used in conjunction with hydraulic brakes as a supplement, and they are used in many consumer class vehicles.
Electrical brakes are more straightforward than hydraulic braking systems, and generally are simpler to maintain and troubleshoot.
One of the most important features of electric trailer brakes is the breakaway switch. The breakaway switch is a system required by law that automatically engages the brakes of the trailer in case of an accident. Preventing the trailer from breaking away during transit is a very important feature as one might imagine. Can you imagine purchasing your dream SHAD UT or MC Trailer and having your prized vehicles take off and breakaway from your trailer and take a trip down the highway before you want them too?